AV Over IP Demystified

July 04, 2023 AV Over IP Demystified

The world of audio-visual technology has undergone a significant transformation with the emergence of AV over IP. This revolutionary concept allows audio and video signals to be transmitted and distributed over standard computer networks, paving the way for a more flexible and scalable approach to deploying large scale AV systems. 

It is becoming increasingly important to understand AV over IP, as it revolutionises how the industry is able to transmit and manage audio and video content. The days of relying solely on dedicated AV cables and proprietary distribution systems appear to be numbered as AV over IP gains traction by enabling seamless integration, easy scalability and cost-effective solutions for larger scale installations.  

The purpose of this article is to inform you about the building blocks of AV over IP. We will explore the fundamental concepts, key components and associated terminology. By understanding the fundamentals of this technology, you will gain insights into its benefits and how it differs from traditional AV distribution methods. Moreover, we will delve into the industry standards, protocols and best practices for effectively implementing AV over IP

What is AV Over IP?

AV over IP, which stands for Audio-Visual over Internet Protocol, refers to the transmission and distribution of audio and video signals over standard Ethernet computer networks, such LAN (Local Area Network) and even WAN (Wide Area Network). This technology allows for the seamless integration of AV systems with existing network infrastructure, enabling the sharing and control of audio and video content across various devices and locations. 

Evolution of AV Distribution 

Traditionally, AV distribution has been reliant on dedicated cables and specialised hardware to transmit signals. However, the emergence of AV over IP has revolutionised this approach by transmitting encoded AV signals over Ethernet networks. This has transformed the possibilities for the AV industry by leveraging the power of IP networks to transmit and manage AV content, making it more flexible, scalable and cost-effective. 

Key Components and Terminology 

AV over IP systems consist of several key components and terminologies. These include: 

  • Encoders: Devices that convert analogue or digital AV signals into IP packets for transmission over the network. 
  • Decoders: Devices that receive IP packets and convert them back into AV signals for display or playback. 
  • Network Switches: Switches that facilitate the routing of AV signals within the network, ensuring efficient transmission and distribution. 
  • Control Systems: Software or hardware solutions that manage and control AV devices and content over the IP network. 

Four Advantages of AV Over IP 

AV over IP offers four main advantages compared to traditional AV distribution methods. These include: 

  • Flexibility: AV over IP allows for easy integration with existing network infrastructure, enabling the sharing of content across different devices and locations. 
  • Scalability: It provides a scalable solution, allowing for the addition of new AV endpoints without the need for extensive rewiring. 
  • Cost-Effectiveness: AV over IP eliminates the need for dedicated AV cabling and hardware, reducing installation and maintenance costs. 
  • Centralised Management: With AV over IP, audio and video content can be centrally managed and controlled, streamlining operations and enhancing efficiency. 

How Does AV Over IP Work?

Network Infrastructure Requirements 

To implement AV over IP, a robust and properly configured network infrastructure is essential. It requires a reliable Ethernet network with sufficient bandwidth to handle the transmission of audio and video signals. The bandwidth required is governed by the number of streams and desired video resolution, 4K video transmission has significantly more network overhead than 1080P for example. Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms can be employed to prioritise AV traffic and ensure smooth and uninterrupted delivery. Broadly speaking, 1Gigabit Networks are the minimum requirement to run AV over IP but will require more signal compression. 10Gigabit networks offer a much bigger ‘highway’ for AV over IP traffic; depending on the scale and topology of the project, this higher speed capability may be necessary. 

Transmission Protocols and Standards 

AV over IP systems utilise various transmission protocols and standards to facilitate the efficient transfer of audio and video signals. Commonly used protocols include TCP/IP, UDP/IP, and RTP/RTSP. These protocols define how data packets are formatted, transmitted and received across the network. 

Signal Encoding and Compression 

At this point, the audiophiles and videophiles may want to look away! Before transmission over the network, audio and video signals are encoded and compressed to reduce their size and optimise network bandwidth utilisation. Popular compression formats like H.264 and H.265 (also known as MPEG-4 AVC and HEVC, respectively) are widely used in AV over IP systems. These codecs efficiently compress the signals while maintaining near perfect high-quality playback. 

Scalability and Flexibility of AV Over IP 

One of the significant advantages of AV over IP is its scalability and flexibility. Utilising Category cabling as a backbone allows for the easy addition or removal of AV endpoints without the need for extensive rewiring or hardware changes. AV signals can be transmitted to any device connected to the IP network that can decode them, such as PCs, laptops, smartphones, decoders and AV displays. This flexibility enables seamless integration with existing AV devices by simply getting a network cable to their location

AV Over IP vs. Traditional AV Distribution  

When comparing AV over IP with traditional AV systems, while it’s evident that AV over IP offers several significant advantages, it also presents some challenges. Here are the key points of comparison to AV over IP, followed by some potential disadvantages. 

Key Comparisons between AV Over IP and Traditional AV Systems 

  • Infrastructure: Traditional AV systems often require dedicated cabling, such as HDMI or line level audio, to transmit audio and video signals. In contrast, AV over IP leverages existing Ethernet networks, eliminating the need for separate AV cables and allowing for integration with other network-based services. 
  • Scalability: Traditional AV systems can be difficult to scale. Adding new AV devices or expanding the system often requires additional cabling and hardware. On the other hand, AV over IP offers greater scalability, allowing for easy addition or removal of AV endpoints without extensive rewiring, so long as there is an existing network socket nearby. 
  • Cost: Traditional AV systems can be cost-intensive due to the need for dedicated cabling, distribution hardware and signal management. AV over IP, while initially requiring investment in network infrastructure, can be cost-effective in the long run because it leverages existing networks and reduces the need for dedicated AV hardware.   

Disadvantages of AV Over IP 

  • Network Dependence: The performance of AV over IP is heavily dependent upon network infrastructure. Any network issues, such as congestion or latency, can affect the quality and reliability of AV transmission. This may result in installation of a separate network for AV over IP devices.  
  • Bandwidth Considerations: Transmitting audio and video signals over an IP network requires sufficient bandwidth. High-resolution or high-fidelity content may consume significant network resources, necessitating careful network planning and management. 
  • Latency: The encoding, transmission and decoding of AV signals all take time, albeit fractions of seconds. This processing overhead has the unavoidable consequence of adding a varying degree of latency to signals. Although latency is usually minimal, it can have unintended consequences in certain system designs. 
  • Network Security: AV over IP introduces additional security considerations, as AV signals are transmitted over shared networks. Proper network security measures must be implemented to mitigate any issues. 

Implementing AV Over IP  

Implementing AV over IP involves several key considerations to ensure optimal performance, network security and seamless integration with existing AV infrastructure.  

Network Bandwidth and Performance 

AV over IP relies on network bandwidth for the transmission of audio and video signals. It is crucial to assess the available network bandwidth and ensure it can handle the anticipated AV traffic. Conducting a thorough network assessment helps identify potential bottlenecks and allows for proper network planning to ensure smooth and uninterrupted AV transmission.  

Many integrators choose to segregate AV over IP services and devices to dedicated network switches with ‘air gap’ i.e. no physical connection between them and other network services. This approach can increase the installation cost; however, depending upon the scale of the project, it may also be the only viable option. Where multiple services must run contiguously, 10Gigabit networks also tend to be favoured for their traffic handling abilities. 

In smaller, more modest AV over IP installations, utilising existing networks is often favoured to keep project costs down. 

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Quality of Service (QoS) and Latency 

AV signals by their very nature are time sensitive. To prioritise AV traffic and maintain consistent performance, implementing Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms is essential. QoS enables the allocation of network resources to AV traffic, ensuring low latency and minimal packet loss. By implementing QoS policies, AV signals receive preferential treatment over non-time sensitive data transmission, guaranteeing high-quality playback and minimising any latency issues. 

Network Security and Management 

AV over IP introduces additional security considerations if AV signals traverse shared network infrastructure. Implementation of proper network security measures, such as VLANs, firewalls and encryption protocols, helps protect against unauthorised access. Additionally, efficient network management practices, including monitoring and troubleshooting tools, help ensure trouble-free AV content delivery.  

Integration with Existing AV Infrastructure 

Successful implementation of AV over IP often involves integrating with existing AV infrastructure, such as displays, audio systems and control devices. Compatibility and interoperability between AV over IP solutions and existing equipment should be thoroughly assessed. This may involve the use of converters or adapters to ensure seamless connectivity, optimal performance and control. 

The Industry Standards and Protocols for AV Over IP  

The successful implementation of AV over IP relies on industry standards and protocols that enable seamless interoperability and efficient transmission of audio and video signals between various vendors’ products. There are various standards and protocols to make AV over IP work. Here are the key ones you need to know

IP Protocols 

TCP/IP: The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol is the foundational protocol suite that forms the basis of data transmission across IP networks. 

UDP/IP: User Datagram Protocol/Internet Protocol is a connectionless protocol used for efficient transmission of real-time data, making it suitable for AV over IP applications. 

Video Compression Formats 

Video compression formats play a vital role in minimising the size of video signals for efficient transmission. These formats are also capable of carrying the associated audio along with the video. Popular formats include: 

H.264: Also known as MPEG-4 AVC (Advanced Video Coding), H.264 is widely used in AV over IP systems. It offers excellent compression while maintaining high video quality. 

H.265: Also known as High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), H.265 offers even more efficient video compression, allowing for better quality at lower bitrates. 

Audio Standards 

In AV over IP systems, audio signals can be transmitted independently alongside video signals, as often there is an audio-only requirement. Key audio standards include: 

AES67: This is an audio-over-IP interoperability standard created by the Audio Engineering Society that enables seamless integration of different audio devices and systems. 

Dante: This a proprietary commercial standard that is widely adopted by manufacturers seeking interoperability and an audio networking technology that provides low-latency, high-quality audio transmission over IP networks. 

Video-Over-IP Protocols 

Several video-over-IP protocols offer specific features and capabilities for AV over IP applications. Some notable protocols include: 

SDVoE (Software Defined Video over Ethernet): SDVoE is an open standard that offers high-quality video transmission, scalability and low latency for AV over IP systems. 

NDI (Network Device Interface): NDI is a popular protocol developed by NewTek for IP-based video production workflows, enabling real-time video sharing and collaboration over standard networks. 

By adhering to these standards and leveraging protocols such as H.264, H.265, AES67, Dante, SDVoE, and NDI, AV over IP systems can achieve interoperability, efficient compression and seamless integration across various audio and video devices. These industry standards and protocols ensure compatibility and enable the delivery of high-quality AV content within an IP-based ecosystem that is comprised of a diverse range of products from differing manufacturers. 

Best Cabling Practices for Deploying AV over IP  

Deployment of AV over IP requires careful planning and consideration to ensure a robust and reliable system. It’s always worth considering the infrastructure at the outset.    

Planning and Designing an AV Over IP System 

Thorough planning and design are essential for a successful AV over IP deployment. Key factors to consider are the number of AV endpoints, signal resolution required which may vary from location to location and the overall network requirements. This will help shape the optimal placement of network switches, encoders and decoders to minimise cable lengths and maintain signal integrity.  

Infrastructure Considerations 

Ensure that the network infrastructure is capable of supporting AV over IP requirements. This includes utilising Cat6 as a bare minimum, although it’s recommended to install Cat6A, as this will give you the ability to use 10Gigbit Network devices either now or in the future. Upgrading electronics in the future is much easier than repulling all the cabling.  

Network Optimisation for AV Traffic 

To optimise AV traffic over the network, it is highly advisable to implement Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms to prioritise AV traffic and ensuring low latency and minimal packet loss. Configure switches to support multicast traffic and IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) snooping, which enables efficient distribution of AV streams to multiple endpoints. An even better option is to utilise switches that are specifically designed to handle AV over IP traffic.  

‘Future-Proofing’ the System 

Of course we can’t say exactly what is going to be round the next corner but you can plan to make sure that your system stands the best chance of being ready for tomorrow. Whether the future requirement is an expansion of the system or implementing the next generation of AV over IP technology, it is wise to consider scalability and adaptability. Allow room for growth by installing additional cabling capacity and ensuring sufficient network switch ports. Stay up to date with industry standards and protocols to ensure compatibility with future AV technologies and advancements. Install good quality Cat6A cable to ensure that your network backbone is either 10Gigabit capable or ready. 

By following these best practices, you can ensure a well-designed and optimised cabling infrastructure for AV over IP deployment. Proper planning, infrastructure considerations, network optimisation and ‘future-proofing’ will all contribute to a reliable and scalable AV system that delivers high-quality audio and video content over the IP network. 


AV over IP offers a new approach to audio-visual signal distribution. By understanding the fundamentals of AV over IP, installers can assess whether the technology is right for their next project. 

When implementing AV over IP, careful planning and design are crucial. Factors such as the number of AV endpoints, signal resolution and network requirements must be considered to ensure optimal system topography. The network infrastructure should be capable of supporting AV over IP and Cat6A cabling is recommended as a minimum for future scalability

Optimising network traffic is essential for smooth AV transmission. Implementing Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms, configuring switches for multicast traffic and considering separate dedicated AV over IP network infrastructure will help ensure robust solutions. 

To ‘future-proof’ the system, scalability and adaptability should be considered upfront. Additional cabling capacity and sufficient network switch ports allow for growth, while staying up to date with industry standards and protocols ensures compatibility with future AV technologies. 

In this article we’ve covered the basics and as a next step, we recommend that you delve deeper into the details of vendor-specific products and technologies. With careful consideration and planning, professional installers can deploy a reliable and scalable AV over IP system, delivering high-quality audio and video content over an IP network. 

At Kordz, our speciality is cabling and connectivity. We know many systems technicians seeking to upgrade their networks to meet today’s bandwidth demands are facing challenges such as flexibility and continued increase in density and performance. That’s why we created the new PRS SlimCat Cat6A Network Cable with an incredibly thin form factor; by effectively halving the size of the cable while maintaining its performance, twice as many cables can be run in the same pathway. For dense AV over IP installations, Kordz has you covered. Please contact our helpful team for more information. 

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